Since When New year is celebrated on January, 1?
The celebration of the New Year Coincides with the use of the current international and the world’s most widely used calendar – Gregorian calendar. It was first posed by Italian doctor Aloysius Lilius and decreed on February 24, 1582, by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom it is named. It was adopted to rectify the errors of Julian calendar.
However, due to its obvious Christian connotations, it is sometimes used by replacing the traditional era notations ‘AD’ and ‘BC’ (Anno Domini and Before Christ) with ‘CE’ and ‘BCE’ (Common Era and Before Common Era), respectively.
Types of Calender
Julius Ceaser introduced the Julian calendar in 45BC. It was a reform of the Roman calendar and probably designed to approximate the tropical year, or the time taken by the sun, as seen from the Earth, to return to same position along its path. It has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months – a leap dayis added to February every four years.
Hence the Julian year, is on average of 365.25 days. It was used in Europe till the end of 1500’s, when countries in that region started shifting to the Gregorian calendar.
Julian Calendar to Gregorian Calendar
Pope Gregory XII decreed that 10 days should be dropped from October 1582, so that October 15 would follow immediately after October 4 of that year. Most Catholic countries, including Spain, Portugal and most of Italy, soon adopted it. But Protestants were a hesitant. The British Empire and Sweden adopted it in 1752 and 1753.
Russia is the only country remained on the Julian calendar until after 1917 Russian Revolution (which is thus called the “October Revolution” though it occurred in Gregorian November), and Greece until 1923.
The Hijri Calendar is used to determine the Islam’s holy days. It is a lunar calendar with 354 days- hence the year is about 11 days shorter than the solar year. As a result, the holy days, although celebrated on fixed dates in their own calendar, usually shift 11 days each year in the Gregorian year.
Similarly, the Saka Calendar of India, it’s used in The Gazette of India and communications issued by the government.