Behind History for January 1 – Today in History

Behind History For January 1 – New Year History

1901 – Nigeria becomes a British protectorate.

1901 – The British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and Western Australia federate as the Commonwealth of Australia; Edmund Barton is appointed the first Prime Minister.

1902 – The first American college football bowl game, the Rose Bowl between Michigan and Stanford, is held in Pasadena, California.

1910 – Captain David Beatty is promoted to Rear admiral, and becomes the youngest admiral in the Royal Navy (except for Royal family members) since Horatio Nelson.

1912 – The Republic of China is established.

1914 – The SPT Airboat Line becomes the world’s first scheduled airline to use a winged aircraft.

1923 – Britain’s Railways are grouped into the Big Four: LNER, GWR, SR, and LMS.

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1927 – New Mexican oil legislation goes into effect, leading to the formal outbreak of the Cristero War.

1928 – Boris Bazhanov defects through Iran. He is the only assistant of Joseph Stalin’s secretariat to have defected from the Eastern Bloc.

1929 – The former municipalities of Point Grey, British Columbia and South Vancouver, British Columbia are amalgamated into Vancouver.

1932 – The United States Post Office Department issues a set of 12 stamps commemorating the 200th anniversary of George Washington’s birth.

1934 – Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay becomes a United States federal prison.

1934 – A “Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring” comes into effect in Nazi Germany.

1942 – The Declaration by United Nations is signed by twenty-six nations.

1945 – World War II: In retaliation for the Malmedy massacre, U.S. troops kill 60 German POWs at Chenogne.

1945 – World War II: The German Luftwaffe launches Operation Bodenplatte, a massive, but failed attempt to knock out Allied air power in northern Europe in a single blow.

1947 – Cold War: The American and British occupation zones in Allied-occupied Germany, after World War II, merge to form the Bizone, which later (with the French zone) became part of West Germany.

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1947 – The Canadian Citizenship Act 1946 comes into effect, converting British subjects into Canadian citizens. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King becomes the first Canadian citizen.

1948 – The British railway network is nationalized to form British Railways.

1949 – United Nations cease-fire takes effect in Kashmir from one minute before midnight. War between India and Pakistan stops accordingly.

1956 – Sudan achieves independence from Egypt and the United Kingdom.

1957 – George Town, Penang, is made a city by a royal charter of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.

1958 – European Economic Community is established.

1959 – Cuban Revolution: Fulgencio Batista, dictator of Cuba, is overthrown by Fidel Castro’s forces.

1960 – Cameroon achieves independence from France and the United Kingdom.

1962 – Western Samoa achieves independence from New Zealand; its name is changed to the Independent State of Western Samoa.

1964 – The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland is divided into the independent republics of Zambia and Malawi, and the British-controlled Rhodesia.

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1965 – The People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan is founded in Kabul, Afghanistan.

1970 – The defined beginning of Unix time, at 00:00:00.

1971 – Cigarette advertisements are banned on American television.

1973 – Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom are admitted into the European Economic Community.

1976 – A bomb explodes on board Middle East Airlines Flight 438 over Qaisumah, Saudi Arabia, killing all 81 people on board.

1978 – Air India Flight 855, a Boeing 747, crashes into the Arabian Sea, due to instrument failure, spatial disorientation, and pilot error, off the coast of Bombay, India, killing all 213 people on board.

1979 – Normal diplomatic relations are established between the People’s Republic of China and the United States.

1981 – Greece is admitted into the European Community.

1982 – Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar becomes the first Latin American to hold the title of Secretary-General of the United Nations.

1983 – The ARPANET officially changes to using the Internet Protocol, creating the Internet.

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1984 – The original American Telephone & Telegraph Company is divested of its 22 Bell System companies as a result of the settlement of the 1974 United States Department of Justice antitrust suit against AT&T.

1984 – Brunei becomes independent of the United Kingdom.

1985 – The first British mobile phone call is made by Michael Harrison to his father Sir Ernest Harrison, chairman of Vodafone.

1987 – The Isleta Pueblo tribe elect Verna Williamson to be their first female governor.

1988 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America comes into existence, creating the largest Lutheran denomination in the United States.

1989 – The Montreal Protocol comes into force, stopping the use of chemicals contributing to ozone depletion.

1990 – David Dinkins is sworn in as New York City’s first black mayor.

1993 – Dissolution of Czechoslovakia: Czechoslovakia is divided into the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic.

1994 – The Zapatista Army of National Liberation initiates twelve days of armed conflict in the Mexican state of Chiapas.

1994 – The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) comes into effect.

1995 – The World Trade Organization comes into being.

1995 – The Draupner wave in the North Sea in Norway is detected, confirming the existence of freak waves.

1995 – Austria, Finland and Sweden join the EU.

1998 – Following a currency reform, Russia begins to circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence.

1999 – Euro currency is introduced in 11 member nations of the European Union (with the exception of the United Kingdom, Denmark, Greece and Sweden; Greece later adopts the euro).

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2004 – In a vote of confidence, General Pervez Musharraf wins 658 out of 1,170 votes in the Electoral College of Pakistan, and according to Article 41(8) of the Constitution of Pakistan, is “deemed to be elected” to the office of President until October 2007.

2007 – Bulgaria and Romania join the EU.

2007 – Adam Air Flight 574 breaks apart in mid-air and crashes near the Makassar Strait, Indonesia killing all 102 people on board.

2009 – Sixty-six people die in a nightclub fire in Bangkok, Thailand.

2010 – A suicide car bomber detonates at a volleyball tournament in Lakki Marwat, Pakistan, killing 105 and injuring 100 more.

2011 – A bomb explodes as Coptic Christians in Alexandria, Egypt, leave a new year service, killing 23 people.

2011 – Estonia officially adopts the Euro currency and becomes the 17th Eurozone country.

2013 – At least 60 people are killed and 200 injured in a stampede after celebrations at Félix Houphouët-Boigny Stadium in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

2015 – The Eurasian Economic Union comes into effect, creating a political and economic union between Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

2017 – An attack on a nightclub in Istanbul, Turkey, during New Year’s celebrations, kills at least 39 people and injures more than 60 others.

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