Second Mughal Emperor:
Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad was better know as Humayun was the second Mughal Emperor and ruled over most of the part of Asia including Afghanistan, Pakistan and most of the parts of northern India from 1531 to 1540. Humayun was born on 17th march, 1508 and died at the age of 47 Delhi. His brothers and half-brothers became his enemies in future.
Humayun had severl wives and kept womens, the most notable were Hamida Banu Begum, Mah Chuchak Begum, Bibi Gunwar Begum, Khanish Aghacha, Shaham Aghacha, and Maywa Jan Aghacha. He had lot of children including Akbar who would be a greatest kings in Mughal Dynasty.
During His Rule:
Like his father Babur, he also lost most of his kingdom early to Sher Shah Suri of Pashtan noble, but with the help of Persia’s Safavid dynasty he regained his kingdom along with a additional territory. Humayun came to power at the age of 23 with no experience and was crowned on 26th December 1530 as the second Mughal Emperor and also tured his brothers as enemies. He was threatened from other rulers like Sultan Bahadur and Sher Shah Suri (Sher Khan). His half-brother Kamran betrayed and took Punjab and the Indus Valley. When Shah Bahadur planned to attack few of Humayun’s kingdom, he acted quickly and captured the fort of Mandu and Champaner, his army forced Bahadur to take up refuge with Portuguese, after some serious problem Bahadur died in 1537.
Challenges of Sher Shah Suri (Sher Khan):
Sher Khan became a powerful ruler by combining his powers in Bengal and Bihar. He challenged the Mughal empire however Humayun was able to eject his threat temporarily. He couldn’t defend his territories from Sher Khan. Mughals were defeated at Chausa in 1539 by Sher Khan. It is to be noted that 8,000 Mughal troops were slaughtered in that war. Sher Khan continued his attacks on Mughals, during this time his brothers were also plotting against him, this packed Humayun to the west.
In a short period of time there was another war issued by Sher Khan that is Battle of Kanauj in 1540 and once again Mughals were defeated. Sher Khan captured the capital city of Mughals Agra and forced Humayun to get out from India to Persia with his wife and few companions. Shah Tahmasp the ruler of Persia treated his as a royal visitor and with his army, Humayun proceeded to claim Kandahar and Kabul.
Sher Khan’s Death:
Meanwhile Sher Khan died died in 1545 and his son died within a few years. Humayun used this opportunity to reclaim his empire. He gathered a large army under the leadership of Bairam Khan, a great military strategist. Bairam Khan led the army and successfully claim the throne for the Mughals. Once again Humayun claimed his father’s throne on 23rd July 1555. At the time of his death in 1556, Mughal empire extended almost 1 million square kilometers. Humayun make sure that he left great kingdom for his son Akbar.
Death of Perfect Man:
Humayun died on 27th January 1556 after was seriously injured when he fell down from the stairs. Humayun was known for his peaceful personality and patience which earned him the title “Insān-i-Kamil (Perfect Man), among the Mughals.