Shortest War in History – Anglo-Zanzibar War 1896
Anglo Zanzibar war map
Zanzibar was an Island country in the Indian Ocean, today its a part of Tanzania. The main island, Unguja (or Zanzibar Island), had been under the nominal control of the Sultans of Oman since 1698 when they expelled the Portuguese settlers who had claimed it in 1499. Sultan Majid bin Said declared the island independent of Oman in 1858, which was identified by Great Britain. The following rulers established their capital and seat of government at Zanzibar Town where a royal residence complex was based on the sea front. By 1896, it had a castle itself; the Beit al-Hukm, an harem; and the Beit al-Ajaib or “House of Wonders”— a stately royal residence said to be the first building in East Africa to have electricity in it.
Causes of Anglo-Zanzibar War 1896
British Empire had its influence all over East Africa particularly in Zanzibar. While Sayyid Saʿīd ibn Sulṭān had extended Zanzibar’s local property and worldwide commercial significance in the first half century, his replacement Barghash had to Bend to European powers and divided his territory among the British and the Germans; later Sultan’s went with the same pattern.
By 1890 Britain had persuaded the sultanate to surrender its territory domains to Germany while permitting the island itself to turn into a protectorate of the British Empire. England consented to safeguard the sultanate as an establishment, yet it focused on that the intensity of the king was professed.
After becoming into Zanzibar’s protector, Britain delineated two key strategy objectives: the abolition of slavery and the rebuilding of the island’s solid commercial economy. Representative General Gerald Portal’s financial arrangement enraged the Zanzibari dealers, however what incensed them more was the approach on slavery, which had gotten indispensable to their lifestyle as flavor ranches flooded in an incentive all through the nineteenth century. Sayyid Ali ibn Saʿīd opposed Britain’s orders until his passing in 1893, and, when it came time to pick his replacement, Britain voiced its desire that the following king be progressively accommodating to royal power.
Out of the few inquirers to the seat, the British sponsored Ḥamad ibn Thuwayn. Notwithstanding, a rebellious Prince Khālid ibn Barghash involved the castle accordingly; he put together his own case with respect to being the main child of the late Barghash and on being disregarded after Barghash’s demise, in spite of the way that Zanzibari progression laws didn’t make the title of king genetic. English specialists had the option to persuade Khālid to remain down, making Ḥamad the uncontested ruler.
Battle of Anglo-Zanzibar War 1896
The conflict between british empire and the sultanate of Zanzibar because of the death of previous Sultan. Zanzibari Prince Khālid ibn Barghash didn’t accept the preferred successor and occupied the Sultan’s palace as he’s the only son of late Sultan Barghash. It caused the monarchical cruisers to fire on his position. The war kept going no longer than 40 minutes, making it the shortest war in recorded history.
The British warned Khalid to Surrender, they had five incredible Royal Navy vessels were additionally in the harbor. Rear Admiral Harry Rawson of HMS St. George sent a final offer to Khālid, educating him and his soldiers to leave the royal residence grounds and give up their arms by 9:00 AM on August 27 or surrender to British capability. Khālid refused to accept as he believed British wouldn’t follow their threats.
But Rawson kept his word, he ordered open fire on the palace at 9.00 am. In spite of the fact that the Glasgow terminated on the St. George in revenge, Rawson helpfully dispatched the yacht. 500 causalities and injured Khālid’s soldiers then British stopped fire 40 minutes. No losses in British side except a single British mariner was truly injured. The Zanzibari-British infantry held the fundamental street on the edges of the city until Khālid gave up. In the confusion, he looked for asylum in the German office.
After the Anglo-Zanzibar war
By the evening of that day Ḥamud ibn Moḥammed has be choosen as the new Sultan as he agreed to all the British terms without questioning. The German’s allowed Khalid to live in exile on the mainland in Dar es Salaam, where he remained until he was arrested by the British during World War I. Khālid died in Mombasa in 1927.
Sources: Link 1, Link 2